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Demography   Local Geography    Forest and Rivers   Distrrict Development Scenario

District at a Glance

Simdega District is situated in the southwestern part of the state of Jharkhand.  It borders with Orissa and Chhattisgarh states.  It comprises of the area, which was erstwhile the Simdega Subdivision of the district Gumla and was created on 30th April 2001.  The district is situated between 200 10 min. to 200 40 min. north   latitude and 840 0 min. to 840 34 min. east longitude. It consists of ten blocks/Circles namely Simdega, Kurdeg, Bolba, Thethaitangar, Kolebira, Bano, Jaldega, Pakartanr, Bansjore and Kersai.

In the ancient days Simdega was known by the name of Biru-Kaishalpur pargana, which was reigned by Raja Katangadeo.  After his demise Maharaja Shivakarna subjugated it.  Munda and Kharia tribes entered into this part in 1441 A.D and Oraon tribe settled here in about 1503 A.D from Rohtas. For some time it was part of the Kalinga Empire and subsequently in 1336 A.D Harideo of Gang dynasty (Ganga Vanshi Gajapati Royal Family of Kalinga-Utkala Empire, Orrissa) was made king of Biru.  The Ancestors of Royal family still resides at Biru. At present Biru is situated at a distance of about 11 km from District headquarter, Simdega. Ganga Bishun Rohilla was famous freedom fighter from Simdega. The population of Simdega district according to 2001 Census is 514320 residing in 100049 households. Urbanization is very poor with 6.6 per cent population only and Simdega is the only town in the district. The room density in urban area is more as 6.6 per cent of the urban population resides in the 5.9 per cent households. The landscape is formed of hills and undulating platue. In the district 1194.50 sq. km areas are covered with forest Simdega district is primarily settled by the Scheduled Tribes with 70.2 per cent population, which is the highest among all the districts of Jharkhand closely followed by Gumla district with 67.2 per cent ST population. Majority of the STs belong to the Christian faith.

 

District Profile

 

A. Basic Indicators

Sl.

Indicator

Simdega

Jharkhand

Source

Year

1

Population

599578

32988134

Census of India

2011

2

Male

300309

16930315

Census of India

2011

3

Female

299269

16057819

Census of India

2011

4

Rural

556634

25055073

Census of India

2011

5

Urban

42944

7933061

Census of India

2011

6

SC Population

44674

3985644

Census of India

2011

7

SC Population Male

22150

2043458

Census of India

2011

8

SC Population Female

22524

1942186

Census of India

2011

9

ST Population

424407

8645042

Census of India

2011

10

ST Population Male

211546

4315407

Census of India

2011

11

ST Population Female

212861

4329635

Census of India

2011

12

Population Growth Rate, 2001-11 (%)

16.62

22.34

Census of India

2011

13

Child Population (0-6 years)

94414

5389495

Census of India

2011

14

Child Population (0-6 years) to total population (%)

15.75

16.33

Census of India

2011

15

Sex Ratio (females per 1000 males)

997

949

Census of India

2011

16

Sex Ratio at Birth, Total

 

930

AHS

2012-13

17

Sex Ratio at Birth, Rural

 

943

AHS

2012-13

18

Sex Ratio at Birth, Urban

 

884

AHS

2012-13

19

Child Population (0-6 years; girls per 1000 boys)

969

948

Census of India

2011

20

Gross Enrolment Ratio (Primary)

 

155.8

DISE

2010-11

21

Crude Birth Rate, Total (per 1000)

 

23

AHS

2012-13

22

Crude Birth Rate, Rural (per 1000)

 

24.3

AHS

2012-13

23

Crude Birth Rate, Urban (per 1000)

 

19.4

AHS

2012-13

24

Crude Death Rate, Total (per 1000)

 

5.7

AHS

2012-13

25

Crude Death Rate, Rural (per 1000)

 

6

AHS

2012-13

26

Crude Death Rate, Urban (per 1000)

 

4.8

AHS

2012-13

27

Total Fertility Rate

 

2.7

AHS

2012-13

28

Wealth Index-lowest (20%)

 

20

AHS

2010-11

29

Wealth Index-highest (20%)

 

20

AHS

2010-11

30

Work Participation rate (15 years and above)

 

45.7

AHS

2012-13

Local Geography

GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION:
                Simdega District is situated in the southwestern part of the state of Jharkhand. As far as its border is concerned it is surrounded by Gumla district in the North, Ranchi and West Singhbhum in the east, Jashpur district of Chattisgarh in the west and district Sundargrah of Orissa in the South. The district is situated between 200 10 min. to 200 40 min. North   latitude and 840 0 min. to 840 34 min. East longitude.

PHYSICAL ASPECTS:
   Major parts of the geographical area of the district are formed of red laterite acidic soil. Upland has generally covered by Morum and Stone.  The landscape is formed of hills and undulating plateau. The inhabitants of this area depend primarily on agriculture and forest products for their livelihood.   Almost 90% of the total population depends on agriculture.  The main crop of this area is paddy. Millets, Mustard, Niger and Maize are also quite popular.  Wheat, Gram, pea, Soya beans, Groundnut etc. are also being cultivated. Total cultivated land is about 134024 hect, out of which only 16367-hect is irrigated. The agriculture is mainly depended on rainwater. The main forest products are Mahuwa, Chironjii, Lah ,Kendu leaves,Jack fruit,Black berry etc..

 

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River and Forest

RIVER: 
               The Major rivers of this area are Sankh, Deo, Girwa, and Palamara. Among these rivers Sankh is the main river of the district.
FOREST:
               Simdega district has about 32% of forested area.  Important forest products are Saal seeds, Cocoon, Lac, Tendu leaves, Karanj, Chiraunji etc., The major trees are Sal, Bija, Gamhar, Jackfruit, Jamun, Mango, Bamboo, Neem etc.

 

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District Development Scenario


                  Simdega is one of the least developed districts in the country . The economy of the district depends mainly on agriculture, forest products, cattle rearing, mining activities and other little commercial activities. This chapter attempts give a background picture on development scenario of the district in short.
AGRICULTURE:
       As per the survey conducted for the year 1997 –2002 five-year plan more than 60% of population is below poverty line.  Therefore, it is obvious that the majority of the families do not earn enough for them selves fed. They are deprived of   basic needs and modern standards of living. As like majority of the rural districts in the country Agriculture is the main source of income for the rural population of the District. However agriculture in Simdega is in a very primitive and under developed state. Majority of the rural populace depends on traditional methods of agriculture. Other problems in the agriculture sector include lack of irrigation facilities, absence of scientific inputs, poor marketing facilities, under developed infrastructure etc.  Statistic shows that out of 1,34,024 hects of cultivable land only 4669.83 hects of land is irrigated. The agriculture is mainly dependent on seasonal rain. Even though the average rainfall of the district is 1100-1200 mm due to lack of rainwater harvesting techniques most of the rainwater remain unutilised.
LIVESTOCK:
                   Despite a large population of milch cattle, yield of milk in the district is very poor. Lack of awareness coupled with local varieties of breed makes it less productive. Attempts are being taken to support the dairy sector and make it more cost effective. As a result artificial insemination centres and sub-centres have been opened at various places in the district.

MINES AND MINERALS:
MINERALS
Jharkhand is known for its rich mineral resources. However presences of significant minerals are yet to be explored in the District. The main mineral resources found in Simdega district are limestone and stone chips.
INDUSTRY:
                   Despite having potential natural resources and various raw materials for small, medium and major industries the sector very much under developed in Simdega. There are no single industrial unit existing in Simdega, which is a clear indicator of lack of development of the district. Tendoo leaves found in the district in major scale but all are exported to other states. The district has also having favourable conditions of Tasar rearing, Lac cultivation, Timber industry, Handicrafts, Electrical, Auto-mobile etc.    
TRADE AND COMMERCE:
                     Simdega is very near to the state capital Ranchi. It also shares the boundary with the industrial town Rourkela of Orissa and Jashpur of Chattisgarh. However trade and commerce as a source of economy is still in its infancy. The major exports of the district are paddy and other forest products. Food grains and other things of daily use are imported on large scale. Even though the district Bazar Samitee exists it lacks necessary infrastructure, staff and other facilities. Local trade and business is mainly centered upon local hat bazaars and weakly Hats.       
COMMUNICATION:
                    a) Roads: - The district has good network of roadways but road condition is not up to the mark. All blocks are connected to the district headquarter through road. NH- 23 passes through the district connecting the State Capital, Ranchi and Rourkela.
                    b) Railway: - The district is deprived of adequate railway communication. District headquarter is not rail connected. Rourkela is the nearest major railway station to Simdega is situated at a distance of 70 km.  Ranchi-Rourkela rail route passes through Bano and Jaldega blocks of Simdega district. However only a few important trains do stops there.
ELECTRICITY:
                     The district receives most of the power supply from the Kamdara Grid. The supply of electricity in the District is much poor even in the district head quarter. Out of ten blocks only six are (Kolibira, Bano, Jaldega, Thethaitangar, Simdega, Kurdeg) electrified till date. It is an area of major concern.
TOURISM:
                      The district Simdega has tremendous potential for development of tourism. Its scenic beauty, landscapes full of greenery coupled with very pleasant climate can attract both domestic as well as foreign tourists. Ram Rekhadham, Dangadi, Kelaghat, Ketungadham, Bandurga, Birugarh, Rajadera, Bhanwarpahar etc. are the main places of interest but needs to be developed by means of necessary infrastructure and service centres.
EDUCATION:
                   The literacy rate of Simdega district is 52.35%, which is below the national level of 67.3%. The female literacy rate is only 40.56%, which is below the national level of 57.1%. The male literacy rate is 64.14%.  In addition to this, the literacy rate among the minorities like Muslims and Christians and tribes is very below the district level. There is a dearth higher and quality education in the district. There are no facilities for technical as well as professional education in the district. Although Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan has helped commendably in improving in the educational infrastructure, accessibility and enrolment at primary level but the situation at higher level is very poor. Access to the higher/college/technical/professional education to the ordinary village student still a distant dream. In addition to the formal government system there are a few private educational institutions also working in the district. The role of Christian missionaries in the field of education can’t be over looked.

 

Table below shows the availability of educational institution in the Simdega district.


Sl .No

Department

Type of School

Number of School

1

Education Dept. / SSA

Govt. Primary School

540

Un aided Primary School       

159

Govt. Middle School

313

Unaided Minority Middle School

51

Govt. Basic School

5

Navodaya School

1

Kendriya Vidyalaya

1

Govt. High School

33

Minority High School

17

Project High School

3

Kasturba Gandhi Residential School

4

2

  Welfare Dept.

Adiwasi Residential High School

0

Adiwasi Residential Middle School

2

3

Higher Education

Inter & Degree Colleges

13

   
                  An analysis of the above table not only shows the dismal picture of higher, technical/professional education in the district but also demands the focused and planed intervention in the sector.       
HEALTH:
                  As like many other backward districts in the country health facilities in the district are very poor. The district also lag behind in many of the heath indicators like Infant Mortality Rate, Maternal Mortality Rate, Institutional delivery, safe delivery etc as compared to the State as well as National average. The District depend mainly the Government health system.  Private investment in the health sector is insignificant. With the avail of National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), there is an improvement in health facility in the district. It certainly boosted various national health/immunisation programmes providing financial, infrastructural, technical and staff supports.  Nevertheless basic health facilities including round the clock service, institutional delivery, modern investigation facilities/pathological tests, medical shops etc are still missing for the villages. Availability of health facilities in remote areas is worst when compared to other parts of the district. Christian missionaries are extending health facilities to tribal population to some extend but which is not sufficient. The total no of doctors and other staffes is less than the sanctioned posts. Lack of manpower is a major hurdle in extending proper health facilities to the people. As a result of large gap existing between demand and supply of health facilities, many of the villages still dependents on alternative/traditional/local health facilities including quacks.

Health Indicators of District Simdega with respect to the State and Nation


Sl No

 Health Indicator /1000

 Simdega

Jharkhand

India

1

Crude Birth Rate

30

26.8

25

2

Crude Death Rate

7.9

7.9

8.1

3

Infant Mortality Rate

53

50

63

4

Maternal Mortality Rate

371

371

301

5

Sex Ratio

1001

941

927

Key Health Service indicators of Simdega with respect to Jharkhand and India


Sl No

Service Indicator

Simdega

Jharkhand

India

1

Couple Protection Rate

22.3

37.9

48.1

2

Complete immunization

30.2

29.3

53.3

3

Comlete ANC check up

11.1

9.9

--

4

Institutional Delivery

13.3

22.4

--

5

Safe Delivery

23.1

27.8

41.9

* Source: RCH-DLHS Survey 2003 and Internal MIS Data

 

Details of health facilities-infrastructure and staffs are given below:-

Health Facilities in the District
Health Care Infrastructure :-

  1. District Hospital                         :-      1 (One)
  2. CHC                                           :-      0 (Nil)
  3. Block PHC’s                              :-      7 (Seven)
  4. Reffral Hospital                          :-      1 (One)
  5. Ad. PHC’s                                  :-      7 (Seven)
  6. No. H.Sub Centre                         :- 155

 Medical & Paramedical Staff (Public Sector) – Sanctioned & In Position; Regular, Contractual 


S.No

Name of The Post

Sanctioned

In Position

Vacant

1.

Civil Surgeon

1

1

0

2.

A.C.M.O.

1

0

1

3.

D.L.O.

1

0

1

4.

D.S.

1

1

0

5.

Medical Officer’s

53

16

37

6.

Assistant Malaria Officer

1

1

0

7

Malaria Inspector

2

0

2

8.

Block Ext. Educator

7

0

7

9.

Health Educator

5

4

1

10.

L.H.V.

17

8

9

11.

Health Inspector

8

1

7

12.

Surveillance Inspector

15

8

7

13.

Surveillance Worker

60

11

49

14.

A Grade Nurse

13

13

0

15.

Clerk

27

27

0

16.

Lab Tech.

14

2

12

17.

A.N.M.

183

141

42

18.

Health Worker

54

47

7

19.

Family Planning H.W.

22

19

3

20.

Pharmacist

14

5

9

21.

Compounder

16

8

8

22.

4th Grade

106

78

28

Medical & Paramedical Staff (Private Sector)

  1.     Rural Mission Dispensaries                                           :-      22
  2.     Clinics                                                                           :-        1
  3.     Arouse (Balwari Center’s) DDC Holder                         :-      21   
  4.    One Village Health Link Worker Per Revenue Villages  :-       5   

                    Among other factors like socio-economic backwardness, lack of awareness and participation of the public, the poor status of health infrastructure and manpower in the field of health sector will certainly explain the poor health indicators of the district as compared to the state/national average. In order to achieve the national goal of health for all and access to the basic health facilities in remote villages, the health sector in Simdega requires strengthening of both physical and social infrastructure.

Sports Activities :

Simdega District is called the " NURSERY OF GAMES(Khel Ka Nursury)".District has setup a landmark in Hockey .Football is also played in Simdega.There are various Hockey players who has played for country.They are : Michel Kindo(Olempian),Silbanus Dungdung(Olempian),Kanti Baa,Masira Surin,Sumrai Tete,Justin Kerketta,Vimal Lakra,Virendra Lakra,Edlin Kerketta,Asunta Lakra ,Alma Guria,Puspa Topno,Sunita,James Kerketta,Ashrita Lakra and so on.

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